Mannequins on the Red Carpet

For decades, various award shows would spotlight what women were wearing, instead of what they were at these ceremonies for. Men were scarcely asked what designer they were wearing and got to speak more about their roles in their product. Shows like Fashion Police would compare women’s outfits the next day, picking out which they liked best and making fun of others to the point where they would have “who wore it better” segments. On Fashion Police, the number of men being judged for what they wore was a fraction of that of the women. In magazines following the event, there would be multiple pages dedicated to which woman they believed had the best dress. Is the point of an award show to see fashion? Does it really matter if you don’t like what a star was wearing or if they wore something similar in past years? Why are women constantly asked what they are wearing when men are rarely asked? We can attribute this to society’s creation of gender roles. A gender role is a set of expectations society has for men and women. Traditionally, men are valued for their work and what they have to bring to the table, whereas women are valued for their looks while their skills are overlooked.

Since 2014, there has been a push on social media to #askhermore. This means that at the red carpet, women should be asked about their roles in their film or their career goals over being asked what designer they are wearing. According to the Bustle article, at the 2017 Golden Globes, women were first asked how they were or about their movie role, then asked about what they were wearing, which led to the end of the interview. Women were asked about their roles more than they were in the past, but there is still significant improvements that can be made on the quality of questions women are asked (Griffiths, 2017).  “Because men occupy a privileged position in the social hierarchy and women occupy a subordinate position (Ridgeway & Correll, 2004), holding the belief that gender roles are fixed may have different consequences for how each gender views themselves and the legitimacy of the social system as a whole” (Kray 2017). By pushing to have more equal treatment for men and women on red carpets, we can help to remove the subordinate gender role from women and have an equal appreciation for each gender’s contribution.  Additionally, In a study by Kray, Howland, Russell, & Jackman they “predicted that fixed gender roles would trigger masculine identity motives and lead men to align their self-perceptions with masculine attributes more than feminine attributes. Given the implied value of masculinity over femininity under fixed gender roles, we did not expect to see evidence of elevated self-stereotyping for women, as claiming more feminine characteristics would require distancing themselves from the more highly esteemed masculine traits. Instead, fixed gender roles might also increase women’s identification with masculine attributes over feminine attributes” (2017). Because men are higher in the social hierarchy than women, on red carpets women are taking more traditional masculine roles by demanding that their worth isn’t defined by what they are wearing. They are thus elevating their societal position to match the advantage of men.  This would also help remove the inherent objectification in only examining women for how they appear.

By: Christina Marciante

 

References

 

Griffiths, K. (2017, January 08). The 2017 Golden Globes Red Carpet May Have Asked Her

More, But They Still Had One Big Problem.Retrieved March 29, 2017, from

https://www.bustle.com/p/the-2017-golden-globes-red-carpet-may-have-asked-her-more-

But-they-still-had-one-big-problem-28850

 

Kray, L. J., Howland, L., Russell, A. G., & Jackman, L. M. (2017). The Effects of Implicit

Gender Role Theories on Gender System Justification: Fixed Beliefs Strengthen

Masculinity to Preserve the Status Quo. Journal Of Personality & Social Psychology,

112(1), 98-115. doi:10.1037/pspp0000124
Myers, D. G. (2015). Exploring social psychology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

Social Psychology, Gender/Gender Roles Buisness/Technology Group

Social Psychology Gender/Gender Roles

Over the last century we have seen a drastic boom in the advancement in technology which has help aid in the advancement of women’s rights, specifically in the field of business. Unlike a century ago, women today can build their own business with the help of social media. Unfortunately, fair gender representation has been a controversial topic this past year. Women have been known to be underrepresented in many fields. While opportunities are lacking for women in the business world, they can change this with the use of today’s advancing technology. For example, if a company is being prejudice towards women, they have a platform to turn to, which is social media. A big issue in America, is the wage gap between men and women as numerous business companies refuse to pay the women equally with men. However, this can now change with the help of today’s emerging technological tools, as women are more capable in delegating their own professional lives especially since pay secrecy is one of the main causes of this gender pay gap.

            According to the article How Technology Can Help Close the Gender Gap, “The implications for companies are significant, as women amass the means and the resources to dramatically change the game. After all, women now control massive resources: In the U.S., they direct 80% of consumer spending and control $5 trillion in investable assets. They jointly control another $6 trillion, according to the Center for Talent Innovation. Women make up just over half of the workforce” (Krawcheck,2017). There are different ways that technology can aid women in business companies such as having the ability to access viable personal information. For example, with such websites such as Get Raised and Payscale, this will allow women to view their own gender pay gap. To continue, it has been proven that companies that have a fair pay system among women and men have experienced an improvement in their business performance.

            If get rid of pay secrecy, we can decrease the gender pay gap. Pay secrecy has become a controversial part in many companies as employees are banned from discussing how much money they earn. Business companies believe that this will avoid notions of the inequality of pay and reduce the claims of discrimination. There is a gender role playing a part of this because their is a clear distinction between men and women in vocations. Studies have proven that women gravitate to jobs that reduce inequalities. “Studies of 640,000 people’s job preferences reveal that men more than women value earnings, promotion, challenge, and power; women more than men value good hours, personal relationships, and opportunities to help others” (Konrad & others, 2000; Pinker, 2008).Outlawing the pay secrecy in companies on a federal level have failed in countless occasions. For example, in the year 2014, President Obama issued an Executive Order in ending pay secrecy amongst federal contractors. There has been research that has suggested that many workers have that do not discuss information about their income are more fearful of retaliation or punishment for such action. According to the article, Pay Secrecy and the Gender Wage Gap in the United States studies show that states that banned pay secrecy, it is unknown about the extent to which workers utilize themselves of these laws or know about them. Interviews with state experts on pay secrecy indicate that few charges have been filed regarding pay secrecy violations.

Disobeying Gender Conformity

Surprisingly, in London, some corporate offices still require an outdated, sexist dress code for women. These restrictions may include, dresses and skirts only, heels at least two inches high, along with other stereotypical female clothing fashions. A women receptionist, Nicola Thorp, from the financial district of London was called out for not wearing the proper footwear to work by her company as reported by The New York Times (Bilefsky 2017). Miss Thorp was certainly going against conformity in the article she was featured in, British Woman’s Revolt Against High Heels Becomes a Cause in Parliament.

Throp was changing her beliefs or behavior to ago against others, not in line with them. In other words, she was deciding not to conform in this case to the company dress code. She also went against obedience too. Her company actually sent her home for not adhering to their dress policy for women. Throp was certainly equipped to deal with her consequences for her actions because she actually initiated a petition containing over 150,000 signatures to make Parliament aware of this corporate issue. This incident happened roughly two years ago and now Parliament has referenced Britain’s 2010 Equality Act, and has labeled that particular company’s policy as sexual discrimination in the workplace.

Once Thorp disobeyed her company’s rules and caused an uproar, other women spoke up as well detailing the unrealistic demands they faced concerning the dress code enacted by their workplaces. Thorp, a women’s advocate, is fighting for equality in the corporate world. She showed women that conformity and obedience wasn’t always the right thing to do. When one feels her rights or gender are being discriminated against, don’t just go ahead and conform, speak out!

In 2015, a psychological study was performed by Wendelien Vantieghem and Mieke Van Houtte, examining whether girls are more pressured to conform to their gender norms than boys. This article, Are Girls more Resilient to Gender-Conformity Pressure? The Association Between Gender-Conformity Pressure and Academic, compares the Belgian culture and how girls usually outperform the boys on educational tests. Seventh grade boys and girls were chosen for this study and the results showed that boys’ academic confidence fell when they were put under more than normal conformity pressure. The term self-efficacy is also used to measure and refer to confidence. There was no change for the girls’ confidence when put under the same amount of pressure since they are used to it.

Vantieghem and Houtte’s article brings up the question if gender conformity pressure is indirectly altering girls’ behaviors overtime. At an early age, certain gender norms are expected for girls. We can even see them outside an academic environment and carried out to adulthood; as in the case of the British company expecting females to wear high heels to work. Some women would go along with this rule but however, others (like Miss Thorp) may decide to bypass the gender pressures. The major ongoing debate topics are; when is it too degrading to abide by such norms, and if women are expected to conform more than men? The study shows that even when girls were put under more than normal conformity pressures, their academic self-efficacy was still higher than boys in this case. It can be said that girls are very used to these kinds of pressures and know how to handle them without letting affect their confidence.

Nicola Thorp is a prime example of when conformity or obedience isn’t always best. Although in some cases it’s accepted, for others, conformity and obedience can actually have a negative impact rather than a positive one, especially when discrimination comes into question. However, some people (women in particular) are actually more impelled to speak up or not be influenced by the gender conformity pressures that are brought up in everyday life.

 

 

References

Bilefsky, D. (2017, March 06). British Woman’s Revolt Against High Heels Becomes a Cause in Parliament. Retrieved March 6, 2017, from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/06/world/europe/uk-parliament-nicola-thorp-heels.html?ref=business

Vantieghem, W., & Houtte, M. V. (2015). Are Girls more Resilient to Gender-Conformity Pressure? The Association Between Gender-Conformity Pressure and Academic Self-Efficacy. Sex Roles, 73(1-2), 1-15. doi:10.1007/s11199-015-0509-6

The Effects of Cults on your Mental Health

 

The word ‘cult’ was never benign in the history of religious movements. In terms of the text, a cult is defined as a group typically characterized by distinctive ritual and beliefs related to its devotion to a god or person, isolation from the surrounding “evil” culture, and a charismatic leader (Myers, 2015, p. 193). When a person hears that word, most likely they would refer to Charles Manson. Manson is a former cult leader and American criminal who led the cult called Manson Family, which committed a series of murders in the late 1960s. Manson is the quintessential example of how persuasion occurs in cults.  Manson is the communicator of the cult which is one of the persuasive elements of cult persuasion. He could be described as a charismatic leader, who attracts and directs members in the cult. People began to trust in him and his credibility as a leader and decided to join the Manson Family.

In the article from Huffington Post titled “Trump’s America through the Eyes of a Cult Survivor”, Teddy Hose introduces his own thoughts about the current president based on his life in a cult called the Unification Church (now known as the Family Federation for World Peace). The Unification Church is now separated into smaller groups led by Moon’s family members. Just like Manson, Rev. Moon had the same charismatic trait that cult leaders are known for. Hose explains that people seeking security, respect, friendship and/or identity were suddenly welcomed into his community. In relation to President Trump, his supporters tend to focus more on how he makes them feel rather than his leadership. The mission of the church was ultimately to recruit members because the less privileged are more vulnerable to promise a better life. This is how Hose saw Trump winning the votes for the election. Trump’s role as the communicator of his messages during the presidential debates were targeted towards the lower class.

In the article “Self-chosen involvement in new religious movements: well-being and mental health from a longitudinal perspective”, two psychology researchers, S. Namini and S. Murken, explore what happens to cult members’ mental health prior to joining cults. A study was formed in which members were asked questions about their personal life and possible reasonings of why they joined a cult. Critics have concluded that NRM’s (new religious movements) specifically address and attract vulnerable individuals such as young and mentally impaired people (Namini and Murken, 2009, p. 563). They point out, for example, that one empirical study indicated that members display increased levels of psychopathology prior to joining the new religious movement. However, this does not support the notion that psychopathology is a precondition to joining. They have come across some evidence that shows that it is not the interest of groups to accept very emotionally unstable individuals as members (Namini and Murken, 2009, p. 563). Based on their studies, it is shown that membership in religious movements such as cults often happens because of a crisis that is occurring in the person’s life. From the participants, there were constant reports of emotional problems and frustrations, dissatisfaction with life and other psychological problems that affected their health.

Those who decide to leave a cult are most likely prime examples of those who experience problems with their psychological health. While inside the cult, there are a number of life changes that can happen: dropping out of college, having to remain celibate or giving up any personal pursuits, etc. In their study of members, the authors found cognitive, affective and relational “vulnerabilities” – that is, high insecurity in childhood attachment to parents, high (current) need for closure and depressive tendencies prior to joining the group (Namini and Murken, 2009, p. 564).

To conclude, the study done by the two researchers and the history of the Manson Family exemplifies the concept of cult persuasion and the effects of cults on member’s mental health. Being a part of a cult can be harmful which can have long term effects.

References:

Hose, Teddy. (2017 March 23). Trump’s America through the Eyes of a Cult Survivor. Huffington Post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/trumps-america-through-the-eyes-of-a-cult-survivor_us_58d1a510e4b062043ad4adc5

Myers, D. G. (2012). Exploring Social Psychology (7th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Namini, S., & Murken, S. (2009). Self-chosen involvement in new religious movements (NRMs): well-being and mental health from a longitudinal perspective. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 12(6).

Lack of Empathy for Patients, Even While They’re Awake During Surgery

Doctor’s interpersonal skills with their patients must always be up to par. However with patients now having an option to take regional anesthesia instead of general anesthesia, doctors are facing a new territory that will truly test their interpersonal skills. This innovative technique of anesthesia is on the forefront of patient autonomy, in which patients are pushing back against physician control and want to be more involved in their own medical treatment (Hoffman, 2017). In Going Under the Knife, With Eyes and Ears Wide Open Hoffman speaks upon the issues between patients readiness to receive this type of anesthesia but doctors inability to adjust smoothly. Doctors are finding trouble being courteous and empathetic during the surgery, while the patients are fully conscious and tentative to everything the doctor is doing.

In this current time where medical patients are choosing to be aware of their medical procedures, it can be concluded that these individuals feel a sense of “curiosity and desire to have control over their experience” as Dr. Langerman states. Another beneficial aspect is the lessening of complications that comes with regional anesthesia as opposed to general anesthesia, and is also less expensive. Also the time patients would need for recovery while under a regional anesthesia is far shorter and expeditious recovery process. As regional anesthesia is becoming more popular, resulting in medical patients opting to be fully or moderately alert during surgery. So with patients not being under during their procedures, this is a new element that doctors must now literally face, at the same time performing a medical procedure. This new association between doctor and patient doesn’t allow for most empathetic medical professional. (Hoffman, 2017)

Empathy is an individual’s ability to understand and relate to another’s perspective on matters. Like the old saying, it’s essentially putting oneself into another’s shoes (Myers, 2017). This concept is especially important for a doctor when performing surgery while the patient is awake. An example of a doctor who is not empathetic in such a situation would be them saying thing such as “Oops!”, “I wasn’t expecting that”, or even “Oh my god I wasn’t expecting that. This could easily set a patient off into a panic, raising their blood pressure level, compromising the success of the procedure. Perceptibly this is not what doctors struggle for when performing surgery, instead for an easygoing success, which would come naturally for an empathetic doctor. Advocate Dr. Ilyas from Rothman Orthopaedic Specialty Hospital in Bensalem praises awake surgery saying, “It’s all about communication, comfort, and experience” (Hoffman, 2017). In the study done by the Spirituality in Clinical Practice the method of mindfulness was followed as a mean-making activity, able to allow medical professionals to enrich their social relationships, empathy, and compassion. To enhance this mindfulness the Buddhist metta meditation was proposed, which could possibly help health professionals build a stronger therapeutic relationship. This style of meditation was principally aimed to increase the medical professionals feelings of empathy and compassion towards all living things. The results were conclusive in finding that the meditation allowed for protection against burnout, pain and anger while with patients, and also an enhancement to their resilience. By having medical professional practicing such mindfulness, there is a correlation between social and existential outlooks into healthcare settings (Nilsson, 2015).

Being in a medical professional means being a master of all trades at times. Patients are typically in a vulnerable position while undergoing medical treatment, so for the doctor to accommodate to that is crucial. Bedside manner for patients helps to develop a healthy doctor-patient relationship, allowing for a successful procedure and recovery rate. An empathetic doctor, one who is mindful of their patient’s emotional needs and responds to them suitably, are able to deliver optimal care and experience less anxiety for themselves.

 

References

Hoffman, Jan. (2017 March 25). Going Under the Knife, with Eyes and Ears Wide Open. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03 /25/health/surgery-awake       anesthesia.html?rref=collection%2Fsectioncollection %2Fhealth

Myers, David G. (2012). Exploring Social Psychology (7th Edition). New York: McGraw-Hill

Nilsson, Hakan. (2015). Socioexistential Mindfulness: Bringing Empathy and Compassion to Health Care Practice. Spirituality in Clinical Practice, 3(1), 22-31. Retrieved from http://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=4049980de06f-4cb8-a278 80b1769384e5%40sessionmgr101&vid=2&hid=124

 

 

Gender Roles In Sports Broadcasting

Do you ever wonder why you only hear male announcers during Men’s March Madness games?

It’s because for as long as March Madness has been around, only two women have ever been hired as sports analysts. According to a New York Times article, Debbie Antonelli was hired as the first woman since 1995 to be an analyst in the 2017 N.C.A.A men’s tournament games. Debbie Antonelli has been a sideline reporter for 29 years, studying hundreds of teams and players. There are plenty of women qualified to call men’s tournament games. But it took twenty two years for another woman to have an opportunity to work on a men’s tournament broadcast. Debbie Antonelli knows that a lot of pressure rides on her performance, because if she makes a mistake people will say, “Oh it’s because she is a woman.”

If women are just as qualified as men to broadcast, then why have there only been two women calling March Madness games in history?

Gender roles are a big factor. Gender roles are expectations for male and female behavior. In society, men are expected to be better at sports, therefore better at announcing them. Previous studies show that men tend to be more outspoken, confident, athletic and dominant. All these traits make a good sports broadcaster. But other studies show that people perceive women to be shy, quiet, and less sports oriented. Since society has such strong views on males and females, it’s no wonder the sports broadcasting industry is overfilled with males. Gender roles make males the perfect candidates for this job and make people question if females would qualify for such a position. Expectations for gender roles are real, but are not applicable to every individual. Not all girls are quiet and uninterested in sports. Many girls play college basketball, study the March Madness games and have worked in the men’s basketball field for years. Just because gender roles depict girls one way does not mean every girl has those characteristics. Women can be just as confident and knowledgeable about basketball as men.

According to a study done on Sex Segregation in Television Sports Broadcasting, women work mainly on sideline reporting, but are underrepresented as studio analysts and live announcers. This study focuses on the relationship between job classification within sports broadcasting and explanatory variables such as sex. Ninety Five percent of play-by-play announcers are male and 93 percent of sports analysts are males. Gender is a big factor in job distribution. Women are concentrated in lower sideline jobs, while males occupy higher positions. In society gender roles associate women to be less qualified as sports announcers than men because of their expected behaviors. The New York Times article shows how gender roles can be challenged. Debbie Antonelli has been working with college basketball for years, but it took the broadcasting industry two decades to finally hire her as a play-by-play announcer. Gender roles play a big role in Sports Broadcasting, but powerful women like Debbie Antonelli and enlightening news articles challenge the expected behaviors of women and men.

References

Macur, J. (2017, March 10). Another Woman at the March Madness Mike? That Only Took 2 Decades. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/10/sports/ncaabasketball/another-woman-at-the-march-madness-mike-that-only-took-2-decades.html?rref=collection%2Ftimestopic%2FESPN&action=click&contentCollection=business&region=stream&module=stream_unit&version=latest&contentPlacement=2&pgtype=collection

Coventry, B.T. (2004). On the Sidelines: Sex and Racial Segregation in Television Sports Broadcasting. Sociology of Sport Journal, 21(3), 322-341. Retrieved from http://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=2&sid=511b6c1c-df33-4909-8ab2-26c6a0536da9%40sessionmgr101&hid=101

Myers, D. (2015). Exploring Social Psychology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education

Swift Refuses to Conform

The 2016 election was probably one of the most memorable elections of this generations’ lifetime. No one could have guessed that TV personality and businessman Donald Trump would not only run for presidency, but also win and become the 45th president of the United States. Besides Donald Trump’s lack of political experience, what really surprised many was his outspoken, unfiltered, and more times than not, very controversial way of speaking. During this election, many well-known names spoke out against Trump and publicly voiced their political position. Celebrities such as Beyoncé, Meryl Streep, Lady Gaga, Miley Cyrus, and many others made it known that they were against Trump and fully supported his opposing candidate, Hillary Clinton. Though many celebrities spoke out and against Trump, one celebrity in particular, one who many would expect to follow the same route remained relatively silent and because of this has received some backlash for it.

In an article by one of Cosmopolitan’s contributors and authors, Mehera Bonner, Bonner discuses how singer-songwriter Taylor Swift recently received some backlash from actress Lola Kirke for not using her platform to denounce Trump. Kirke’s stance was that Taylor might as well have supported Trump since she remained silent during the election. Bonner writes, “There’s no obligation for celebrities to tell their fans who they voted for. But — in the age of Trump — the phrase “silence is compliance” gets thrown around for good reason.” This article presents an example of conformity. Conformity is a change in behavior or belief as the result or real or imagined group pressure (Myers, 2015). Two main reasons why individuals conform are because they believe that the mass majority knows something that they don’t, and therefore they must be right. The other reason is to avoid any discomfort or possible judgment that comes with disagreeing or going against the mass. This article presents a perfect example of nonconformity and what can result. By not conforming and not following the same path as other popular celebrities, Taylor Swift received some pretty harsh feedback. Though she did not reveal whom she was voting for, Swift made it clear that she was voting through social media. Many would assume that she did in fact vote for Clinton due to her public support for her in 2008. Did Swift remain silent because she supported Trump, or did she just want to remain private for this personal matter? In one article, the topic of political conformity is explored.

In one particular study, it was tested to see if individuals would conform on political issues and which individual differences influence this behavior. The study revealed that individuals do alter their political opinions they share with others whom they disagree with (Carlsen, 2016). It was found that many individuals, more than 80%, did alter their previously stated political views. It was also found that when in a group with other participants, the majority disagreeing with the main subject’s viewpoint, the participant was more likely to conform.

Taylor Swift’s reason for remaining silent during this past election is still unknown, but based on the study there could be several theories as to why she kept quiet. Taylor Swift has been very active in various causes throughout her career. She has promoted the Every Woman Counts campaign and she has spoken out against LGBT discrimination. Due to her active participation in more liberal causes, the mass majority of her fan base more than likely supported Clinton. If Taylor Swift did have opposing views to the majority and possibly decided to vote for Trump for other reasons, her awareness of her fan base may have led her to keep her silence in regards to this election. By remaining silent, Swift would avoid possible controversy and fallout with her and her fans.

 

 

 

 

 

Carlson, Taylor N. and Jaime E. Settle. “Political Chameleons: An Exploration of Conformity in Political Discussions.” Political Behavior, vol. 38, no. 4, Dec. 2016, pp. 817-859. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1007/s11109-016-9335-y.

 

Bonner, M. (2017, March 17). Lola Kirke Slams Taylor Swift for Staying Silent About Trump. Retrieved from

http://www.cosmopolitan.com/entertainment/a9146655/lola-kirke-taylor-swift-trump-interview/

 

Myers, D. G. (2015) Exploring Social Psychology. New York, NY: McGraw Hill Education.

Don’t dump because of Trump

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By: Andrew Lacativa

Due to the recent presidential election results, many people have struggled to decide whether or not they should take their investments out of the stock market or keep them in. Before the decision is made to remove your funds from the stock market, you should be aware of a possible flaw in your decision-making. According to New York Times journalist, Neil Irwin, the president has a minimal affect on most of the stock market’s flow (Irwin, 2017). These recent heuristics of American citizens demonstrate the illusory correlation. People often perceive the existence of a relationship between two things as stronger than they really are; sometimes they really have no relationship which is a correlation error (Myers, 2015).

Today, mass numbers of people find hundreds of ways to blame Trump for certain situations because of his current image in our government. A prime example is the Liberals who are consulting with stock market specialists about cashing out or not (Irwin, 2017). People automatically think that every move our president makes will somehow make or break our economy and affect themselves directly. The simple truth is that there isn’t solid evidence that our president has a heavy influence on the stock market. The state of stock prices can either fall or rise, no matter who is in office. Economists can also agree that the president does not have an affect on how fast the stock markets grows as well. To continue, the stock market is constantly breaking down as the years continue, due to many demanding fixes. It does not matter whether our president will be able to handle the economy, because people will continue to invest in big companies which will ultimately affect the stock market regardless. A psychological study performed in 2014 involving political ideologies and the illusory correlation enhances the existing debate whether people actually are influenced more by politics more than we think (Carraro, 2014). The results of the study seem to indicate that an implicit and explicit illusory correlation bias emerged both in the case of liberals and in the case of conservatives, although remarkably stronger in the explicit illusory correlation bias (Carraro, 2014)

 

References

Carraro, L., Negri, P., Castelli, L., & Pastore, M., Pastore. (2014). Implicit and explicit illusory

correlation as a function of political ideology. Plos One, 9(5), e96312. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0096312  

 

Irwin, N. (2017, February 13). It’s Probably a Bad Idea to Sell Stocks Because You Fear Trump.

Retrieved February 10, 2017, from

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/13/upshot/its-probably-a-bad-idea-to-sell-stocks-because-you-fear-trump.html https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwj_8rzY-5rSAhXM6yYKHQ6iCVIQjRwIBw&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.aol.com%2F2014%2F03%2F05%2Frepublican-democrat-presidents-better-stock-market-performance%2F&bvm=bv.147448319,d.amc&psig=AFQjCNHfwMZcopBMyzempFjIpufpUExxkA&ust=1487552630521758

Swipe Right (For Republican)

 

By Connor Wills

While we watch policy and government morph and change with the recent inauguration of President Trump, most people are continuing on with their day to day lives. They’re buying groceries, going to school and work- and they’re even dating! But what does dating have to do with Donald Trump? Does politics play a role in relationships? According to NPR, it sure does. When talking to individuals, they found that a person’s political party will either immediately connect or disconnect individuals looking for a romantic relationship. Why? Likely it has something to do with confirmation bias.

According to a study published by the Polish Psychological Bulletin, people exhibit a confirmation bias when faced with making judgements based on moral character and intelligence/competence. The study’s results showed that people were more likely to search for reasons to support their judgements based on character than they were to search for support of intelligence. They exhibited more bias when it came to moral situations and moral traits- such as honesty- than when it came to competence- such as logical reasoning. And- get this- it made no difference whether one was aware of their bias or not, they still expressed the same amount of bias towards the individual. So, people are likely to act biased towards people based on perceptions of moral character- and they will actively search for reasons to back up their claim.

So, wait- how does this connect to dating? Shared morals and values are one of the things that allow relationships to work. And so, these values are often included on online dating profiles. If I were to mention Hillary Clinton, what kind of ideas would pop into your mind? Likely her morals and values expressed during her campaign. What if I mentioned Donald Trump? The same, right? People are including their political stances on their dating profiles, which puts a perception of character in an individual’s mind. So, when people are browsing through, say, Tinder, and open someone’s profile to see that they have a political affiliation listed, an individual will immediately start looking for validation to support the perception that comes along with it. This confirmation bias is pushing Democrats and Republicans even farther apart, as it is only enforcing the perceived moral differences between the groups. Will Republicans and Democrats be able to get over their differences any time soon? Well, we’ll just have to wait and see.

 

Citations:

Brycz, H., Wyszomirska-Góra, M., Bar-Tal, Y., & Wiśniewski, P. (2014). The effect of metacognitive self on confirmation bias revealed in relation to community and competence. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 45(3). doi:10.2478/ppb-2014-0037

 

Myers, D. G. (2012). Exploring social psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill.

 

Smith, T. (2017, February 14). When Dating In The Era Of Divisive Politics, Both Sides Stick To Themselves. Retrieved February 15, 2017, from http://www.npr.org/2017/02/14/515179534/when-dating-in-the-era-of-divisive-politics-both-sides-stick-to-themselves

The Spotlight Effect in Entertainment

 

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

BLOG POST #1-

MEMBERS: LynJoy Robinson, Tess Petreycik, Christina Marciante, Jacqueline Recio, Matt Benedict

Author: LynJoy Robinson

 

The Spot Light Effect in Entertainment

The Spotlight Effect is the tendency for one to have a self-conscious approach to situations, essentially overestimating how intensely one’s actions and/or appearance are scrutinized by others. A recent video clip published online featured the Kardashian-Jenner clan on vacation in Costa Rica. The video was tagged Kourtney Kardashian brings her beautifying team on vacation. The video featured Kourtney Kardashian sitting down getting her makeup done, by a member of her beauty team, while she made a snapchat video for her fans to see. (Anthony, 2017)

The Kardashian girls jump through hoops to ensure their appearance is always on point, both in person and on their social media pages. They typically do not like being photographed without their makeup and hair done. But do people really care about how these ladies look? Are the Kardashians making a big fuss out of something insignificant? I believe the answers to these questions are Yes!  Based on how these ladies think they should look, they are evidently experiencing the Spotlight Effect.

A peer reviewed article, The Spotlight Effect in Social Judgement, written by Thomas Gilovich et.al (2000) eloquently explains this concept.  The article draws the conclusion that people typically “overestimate the extent to which their actions and appearance are noted by others (Gilovich, Medvec, Savitsky., 2000, p. 1).” The researchers conducted a three-part study. The participants were asked to wear t-shirts that had either a flattering image, or an embarrassing image. The participants wearing these t-shirts overestimated the amount of observers that would be able to recall the words/ images on their shirt. In another study, participants were placed in a group discussion, where they again overestimated the extent to which their exchange of words were remembered by their fellow group members.

The research concluded that the Spotlight Effect is very present in everyday life. The assessment of one’s self sparks the perception that one’s actions are ‘under the microscope’ of others. People “typically end up overestimating their own prominence in the eyes of others” (Gilovich, et al., 2000, p. 9).

As humans, we are all guilty of over assessing our own behaviors and actions, even when we don’t realize it. The article and video cited earlier gave a pronounced example of the Spotlight Effect. The Kardashian-Jenner ladies payed presumably thousands of dollars for a beauty team to follow them all the way throughout Costa Rica, just so they could look their absolute best while on vacation to maintain the image they thought was necessary. They believe the world is scrutinizing their imperfections. But the reality is, no one seem to care as much as they think. People are largely caught up with more concerning issues happening in the world.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

 

Anthony, R. (2017). Kourtney Kardashian Strips Naked For A Sexual Skinny-Dipping Picture.

Elite Daily. Retrieved from http://elitedaily.com/entertainment/celebrity/kourtney-kardashian-naked-skinny-dipping-snapchat/1772727/

Anthony, R. (2017). Kourtney Kardashian brings her beautifying team on vacation. Elite Daily.

Retrieved from http://elitedaily.com/entertainment/celebrity/kourtney-kardashian-naked-skinny-dipping-snapchat/1772727/

Gilovich, T., Medvec, V. H., & Savitsky, K. (2000). The spotlight effect in social judgment: An

egocentric bias in estimates of the salience of one’s own actions and appearance. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 78(2), 211-222. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.78.2.211

Myers, David G. (2012). Exploring Social Psychology. New York: McGraw- Hill.