The NFL and Taking a Knee

Before last year, if a football player was taking a knee it would be because they were tired and needed to get off their feet for a minute or two. That was, until Colin Kaepernick decided to take a knee during the national anthem in the the 2016 season. When asked why he took a knee he told reporters that he did it to protest social injustices toward people of color in America, specifically black people. He did this at a time when police brutality against black people dominated the news headlines. Last year, Colin Kaepernick took a knee by himself to start the conversation about the injustices toward black people that happen on a daily basis in our country. Fast forward to 2017 and we have whole teams and executives locking arms and taking knees during the national anthem, while some teams went as far as not even leaving the locker room at all, as stated in the article by the NY Times. In 2017 though, majority of players are kneeling in protest to the president who gave some harsh remarks about the players of the NFL, going as far as calling anyone who kneeled a “SOB” and that they should be “fired” according to the article by the NY Times. The article also states that the players want to make it very clear that they are not kneeling to disrespect the flag or the military but are simply using their platform, in a peaceful way, to shed light on a subject that would otherwise not be talked about.

I think that the players in the NFL are conforming to what the majority of other players are doing. Since so many other players are kneeling players will conform to not feel left out of the majority and looked down upon by their peers. Conformity is a change of behavior by an individual to fit in with a larger group. One of the things that we know influence conformity is group size. For example, when it was only Colin Kaepernick kneeling nobody else was inclined to kneel but when the number got to about four of five people on a given team, the rest of their team would have been more likely to conform and kneel. Now that we see whole teams starting to kneel and even stay in the locker room, it has become easier than ever for players to conform because of the large numbers of other players who are deciding to kneel. I also think that there are examples of social facilitation in regards to what the players are doing.  Social facilitation is the tendency to perform easy tasks better and more difficult tasks worse with the presence of a crowd. Since kneeling is a rather simple task social facilitation can explain why players are more inclined to do it because of the large crowd backing them up. With these large crowds, players feel more comfortable kneeling and get more amped up when it comes time to kneel because they know the reaction they will receive when they do. Realistically, if there was no audience there would be no reason to protest because nobody would see it. So if they were alone in their living room they probably wouldn’t take a knee. This change in behavior due to the mere presence of others is a textbook example of social facilitation.

References:

 

A Life for A Life: A Health and Science Social Psychology Blog

What would be your first priority, your health or your unborn baby? The common motherly instinct would be to always put the child life’s first, no matter how high the risk. That is what Carrie DeKlyen, wife and mother of five, did when she was diagnosed with brain cancer while carrying her sixth child as reported by Fox news on September 22nd, 2017. She was in a
stage where she was in dire need of chemotherapy but it would interfere with her pregnancy.
Some could imagine in this situation, her close family and friends might’ve suggested for her to go through with the chemotherapy and choose to live. Her declining the treatment puts her at risk
of leaving her husband and her five children behind. But Carrie DeKlyen didn’t care to put her life over her baby and strongly didn’t believe in abortion due to her religious beliefs. Unfortunately three days after giving birth to her baby Carrie DeKlyen passed, and her baby
being born premature also ten days later died in the hospital.
The Just World Hypothesis states if you’re a
good person, good things will happen to you. If
you’re a bad person, bad things will happen to you.
Some can view this tragedy and think that Carrie
DeKlyen was a selfless person to give up her own
life her baby to have a chance to live, and those who are against abortion could view Ms. DeKlyen as a hero. Those who would view Carrie DeKlyen as a good person could seek the positives in the situation, like that her story has been spread throughout the world and now have
touched the lives of many people. Some could also try to paint Carrie DeKlyen as a bad person, and say she was selfish for declining the chemotherapy being that she has five other children and
her husband. Some can say that she is bad for risking her own life and leaving her family, and would use that as justification or reason as to why she and her baby both passed. People often feel uncomfortable when the Just World Hypothesis comes to be untrue, so they may try to find
the karma in the situation, because it’s hard to think that maybe bad things can happen to good people and that good things can happen to bad people. At the end of the day, not in all cases will
there be a happy ending.
Confirmation Bias is where people look for evidence to confirm their views and beliefs. Carrie came from a religious background of the Christian faith and there are many beliefs that Christians have based on what they are taught in church and what they read in the Bible. The New Testament reads “I consider that our present sufferings are not worth comparing with the glory that will be revealed in us” (Romans 8:18, The New King James Version) which encourages Christians that there is a purpose to their pain and it all will be worth it in the end when the
purpose is revealed. Sonya Nelson announced her sister’s fate on Facebook Thursday September 21, 2017 and posted “’Carrie is now rocking her baby girl. I have no explanation of why this happened, but I do know Jesus loves us and someday we will know why (Fox News, 2017). This is a clear example of confirmation bias, where Carrie DeKlyen’s sister is using her faith to make justification of the tragic events that occurred within her family. Christians also believe that there is life after death, and that the Earth is not their homes but Heaven is, and if they believe in their faith’s teachings and live a good life they will be in heaven. When Carrie’s sister said that she was “rocking her baby girl”, that was her using confirmation bias to confirm her beliefs that there is a heaven and her sister’s suffering led her to a place of eternal happiness.
Concepts like the Just World Hypothesis and Confirmation Bias both play a role at times in people’s situations, and can have a big effect on how some people decide to view their situations and cope. Whether it is used positively or negatively, both bring a sense of comfort
and a sense of control. The DeKlyen’s story is a tragic one but also is a positive story of a woman of faith choosing to be selfless for her baby to have a chance of life, and inductive reasoning proves as a way of coping and bringing light into any dark situation.
Written by Stamyr R.
References
T. (2017, September 22). Baby whose mother chose to give birth over chemotherapy dies [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.foxnews.com/health/2017/09/21/baby-whose-mother-chose-to-give-birth-over-chemotherapy-dies.html

She Got Out

Elizabeth Smart
Age when abducted and now

 

Elizabeth Smart was only 14 when she was kidnapped from her home by Brian David Mitchell.  The 52 year old man along with his wife kept Elizabeth captive for over 9 months and police could not locate them because they were holding her at a location in the woods.  Now 15 years later she is 29 years old and is married with two children.  Her kidnappers are in jail Mitchell is serving a life sentence for abuse, while his accomplice and wife, Wanda Barzee, is serving 15 years for aggravated kidnaping.  Smart recounts her times while she was taken by them.

Mitchell aggressively raped her everyday she was held captive by them.  She said when he had first taken her she had contemplated suicide since she came from such a religious neighborhood and being raped made her feel devastated. She said “I felt like it would be better to be dead than to continue living being a rape victim, being a rape survivor.” This was only in the beginning, for nine months Mitchell forced Smart to watch pornography and then he repeatedly raped her, aggressively.  Finally, she became accustomed to it.  What she does believe is that pornography lead Mitchell to be so aggressive.  There is no proof on this but she believes watching Pornography led him to raping her more than usual which was already a lot.

Brian David Mitchell and Wanda Barzee
Husband and Wife and the Kidnappers

 

Learned helplessness seems to play a huge roll in this case. Learned Helplessness is when the person eventually believes they cannot be helped due to the fact that all these outside characteristics play a part and they are told nothing will work so they believe it.  Smart was held captive for 9 months being raped repeatedly. She even said “I felt in the moment if there had been an easy way out, I probably would have taken it.” This shows that she eventually thought she would not be helped and thinking that she eventually came to terms with the fact that she believed she would not get out.

The second concept that relates to this a great deal is Locus of Control.  There is both internal and external locus of control.  For internal locus of control it is believed that we have control over what happens to us and for external we believe that outside factors have control over what happens to us.  We believe in this situation Smart could have thought she had an External locus of control due to the fact that she could not help what was happening to her; all the way from being kidnapped from her own bed to being raped repeatedly.  She probably believed it was all out of her hands; even her escape which is why she had contemplated suicide.

Smart went through a great while being held captive for over nine months.  Thankfully she did not let it run her life once she was rescued from the situation but instead embraced it and made the best of her life.  Because of that she is married and has two beautiful children.  She now has control over her own life.

 

This is the movie created about this story:

 

https://tubitv.com/movies/387029/the_elizabeth_smart_story

 

Citations:

  • Maryse Godden. (2017). Elizabeth Smart Contemplated Escape “Porn Addict” Rapist. NY Post. http://nypost.com/2017/09/19/elizabeth-smart-contemplated-suicide-to-escape-porn-addict-rapist/

~Yesim Ekici~

Racism in the Oscars

For many years, racism has been a huge problem in society. This has been an issue for many years, and is something that continues to be a huge issue in society today. This is a huge problem, especially in the field of arts and entertainment.

A place where celebrities face the most racism is at the award ceremonies. Racism is defined as an individual’s prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given race. In these ceremonies, it is usually the white male or female actors/ actresses winning the awards. Black, Hispanic, and other races of celebrities are barely seen winning any of these awards. It is evident that the small number of black/ Hispanic celebrities winning awards at these ceremonies affects them. People tend to look at them lowly, because of the fact that they are not really expected to win. This causes both prejudice (negative prejudgments) and discrimination (negative behaviors) toward people of these races. The people who devalue African Americans are people who have lower career aspirations (Brown). This means that people who are racist tend to be lower on the career spectrum, and that their prejudicial opinions can be the primary cause. When celebrities of these races win awards, such as Oscars, it is not as acknowledged as it should be, or is acknowledged too much but more in a negative way. All actors/ actresses put in the same amount of effort in their work, yet only the white actors/ actresses are acknowledged for their hard work. The lack of attention for black celebrities is something that affects them.

This past year, the Oscars made history with the most black winners ever. Every year since 2007, only one black celebrity has won an Oscar. This year, two black celebrities won Oscars. Although this was not a big number gap, it is still more than the typical one black celebrity who wins an Oscar. The black celebrities who won the Oscars this year are Mahershala Ali (Moonlight) and Viola Davis (Fences). As the years go on, at this rate, more Black/ Hispanic celebrities should be winning more Oscars, and shouldn’t be discriminated against because of their race.

-Tess P.

 

 

Works Cited

Brown, Danice L. “African American career aspirations: Examining the relative influence of internalized racism.” PsycINFO, Apr. 2016, web.b.ebscohost.com.rlib.pace.edu/ehost/detail/detail?vid=8&sid=b00fce12-52b2-454c-baf3-6f8d7de256a0%40sessionmgr102&hid=101&bdata=JmxvZ2luLmFzcCZzaXRlPWVob3N0LWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#AN=2016-09071-006&db=psyh.

Nolfi, Joey. “Oscars 2017: History made with most black winners ever.” Entertainment Weekly, 27 Feb. 2017, ew.com/awards/2017/02/26/oscars-2017-black-acting-winners/.

Myers, D. G. (2015). Exploring social psychology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

 

 

Ingroup Views About Immigrants May Be Wrong

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Many Americans are not to fond of immigrants roaming on American soil.  Many place immigrants in their own group, and shine a negative light on them. It is believed that immigrants steal American jobs, housing and cause many crimes. Americans can be referred to as the “ingroup” which is the “Us” – a group of people who share a sense of belonging. The immigrants would be referred to as the “outgroup”- a group that people perceive as distinctively different from or apart from their ingroup.

Just this week, U.S Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) data shows that half of immigrants arrested in raids had only traffic convictions or no record at all.  Roughly 675 immigrants were picked up in roundups across the US days after President Trump took office. Of those 675 half had no criminal convictions or had committed traffic offense.

Being a part of the ingroup strongly influences how you think about members of the outgroup. The article being a prime example. Many American paint a picture that these immigrants are prevalent to the crimes committed in this country. When in reality immigrants aren’t adding much to the crime rate. This goes to show that ingroup vs. outgroup views can easily blur reality.

 

Article: https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/social-issues/ice-data-shows-half-of-immigrants-arrested-in-raids-had-traffic-convictions-or-no-record/2017/04/28/81ff7284-2c59-11e7-b605-33413c691853_story.html?utm_term=.ff08eb7282a4

 

Latajia Cox

Abuse and Neglect at Immigrant Detention Centers

The article “New SPLC report uncovers abuse and neglect at immigrant detention center in the South,” discusses the discrimination that has been displayed to immigrants since the election of President-elect Donald Trump. The unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group is evident throughout the article and is otherwise defined as discrimination (Myers, D. G., pg. 245- 246). Ever since the election, there have been many arguments about what will happen in United States with President-elect Donald Trump in office. The article examines how Trump’s deportation plan has affected the way immigrants are being treated. The effects of discrimination and racism as portrayed in the article are the prominent cause in the mental and psychological problems in individuals. In the South, as stated in the article, many immigrants that are detained are regularly and frequently denied their due process rights. Not only are these immigrants denied due process rights, they are also physically and mentally abused, as well as being detained in unsanitary environments, and are not being offered proper medical and mental health treatments. Causing severe sufferings and sometimes deaths, these facilitations lack outdoor recreations, leading to more mental and physical deterioration while awaiting their deportation. These conditions afflicted on immigrants affect the health of so many, families and friends are lost and the toll taken on their lives is often unbearable.

However, these conditions did indeed occur before the President-elect Trump.  An individual’s prejudicial attitudes and discriminating behavior toward people or institutional practices that subordinate people of a given race is defined as racism (Myers, D. G., pg. 245- 246). In my opinion, hate groups have always existed in our society and the election of Donald Trump has just made these people feel more comfortable in displaying their hate. People believe because Donald Trump displayed certain attributes, which some consider racist, sexist, etc., that they can display the same. However, the problem in this country comes from the people themselves and NOT who is in office. Speaking to the concept of prejudices, which can be defined as a negative prejudgment, we are taught to hate. Thus applying the perspective of the differential association theory, stating that deviance is learned, and because it is learned, the actions as well as the justifications as to why are also learned. The way we treat each other should not change when presidents change. Some are taking the election of Donald Trump in an absurd and disgusting way by deciding to treat people so poorly for no apparent reason other than the culture they are apart of. This article shows how people can treat each other so terribly and have no remorse for their actions, when the ramifications are detrimental to the health of the one’s they hurt.

Article: https://www.splcenter.org/news/2016/11/21/new-splc-report-uncovers-abuse-and-neglect-immigrant-detention-centers-south

Textbook: Myers, D. G. (2012). Exploring social psychology (seventh ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Rabusin, M.

Teen Mental Health Experts Are Worried About “13 Reasons Why’s” Effects

13 Reasons Why, the Netflix adaption of Jay Asher’s 2007 novel, has schools parents and health care professionals in an uproar. The show is about a teen girl, Hannah, who commits suicide and leaves behind 13 tapes listing off 13 people she feels where responsible for her death. Netflix took on the show stating teen suicide and sexual assault are things that we don’t really talk about, but they happen often. Since there is so much stigma surrounding suicide and sexual assault, teens are afraid to reach out for help when they need it. In several episodes of the Netflix original there are graphic depictions of sexual assault and the last episode shows Hanna’s suicide in graphic detail. They even opted to change the method by which she killed her self in the book, overdosing on pills, for the more dramatic and graphic slitting of her wrists. The directors bold decisions to depict an on screen suicide has many parents and health care professionals worried that this will romanticize and encourage suicide attempts. “Some mental health experts say the show could pose health risks for certain young people, such as those who have suicidal thoughts. Others suggest the show provides a valuable opportunity to discuss suicide risk with young people, as well as teaching them how to identify warning signs of depression or suicidal thoughts among their peers. Among American young people, those between ages 10 and 24, suicide is the third leading cause of death… Each year, about 157,000 people in that age range receive medical care for self-inflicted injuries at emergency departments across the United States”(Howard,). Experts are worried the “suicide contagion” phenomenon will increase these numbers.

A study published by the Canadian medical association journal in 2013 found that among 12- to 13-year-olds, being exposed to a classmate’s suicide was associated with being five times more likely to have suicidal thoughts. Other age ranges had varying levels of correlation but they overall proved that there is an association between exposure to suicide and suicidality outcomes (Swanson, Colman). Although many people believe this could lead to an increase in suicide that was the opposite of the intentions of the shows writers and producers they want to spread awareness and start a conversation. “One of the writers of the 13 Reasons Why series has defended the decision not to shy away from main character Hannah’s suicide and to include a graphic scene of her death… From the very beginning, I agreed that we should depict the suicide with as much detail and accuracy as possible. I even argued for it… It seemed to me the perfect opportunity to show what an actual suicide really looks like — to dispel the myth of the quiet drifting off. It overwhelmingly seems to me that the most irresponsible thing we could’ve done would have been not to show the death at all” (Howard,). Often times we think of suicide as peaceful because this is how it is presented in film. However, this is not the case. Romanticizing suicide could be due to the fact people have never seen how horrific it actually is. By having this tv show that show what it is actually like to commit suicide will add awareness to the reality and show people it is actually something that happens.

article

Howard, Jacqueline. “’13 Reasons Why’ Sparks Debate on Teen Suicide.” CNN. Cable News Network, 25 Apr. 2017. Web. 03 May 2017.

Swanson, Sonja A., and Ian Colman. “Association between Exposure to Suicide and Suicidality Outcomes in Youth.” Canadian Medical Association Journal. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 May 2017.

Sexism in the Oscars

 

It’s no secret that there are significant stereotypes reinforced and institutionalized through the modern media. Stereotypes like women being less qualified to be successful, or receive accolades for their work, are so ingrained in the media that they become solidified as prejudices in society. These prejudices become a factor that everyday people, in this case women, have to live according to in modern society. Even high profile celebrities end up being affected by these standards: including Academy Award winning Barbra Streisand.

Sexism is defined as “institutional practices (even if not motivated by prejudice) that subordinate people of a given sex (Myers 2015).” Barbra Streisand, one of the best-selling musical artists of all time, has publicly expressed that being a woman has “cost her multiple Oscar nominations over the years (Reynolds 2017),” and thus making her a victim of blatant sexism. Streisand claims that there was a significant number of “older people” that has no desire to see a woman director, including other women (Reynolds 2017). In this situation, it is a sexist stereotype that women are unqualified to direct that evolved into what exists today: a prejudice that says women should not be directors.

In their study on the nature of sexism, Tadios Chisango, Thokozile Mayekiso, and Manuela Thomae examine how two different elements of sexism, benevolent sexism and hostile sexism, manifest themselves in society, as well as how they are treated by the perceivers. Through examining sexism as a whole, we come to the idea that it is a mix of “benevolent sexism (‘Women have a superior moral sensibility’) with hostile sexism (‘Once a man commits, she puts him on a tight leash’) (Myers 2015).” In modern society, Chisango et. al. find that people react very differently towards each form of sexism:

“On the basis of the above findings, which have revealed widespread endorsement of BS [benevolent sexism] but rejection of HS [hostile sexism] across many different cultures by both genders in slightly varying degrees, we reasoned that expression of BS and enacting of related behaviour is more likely to occur in public than private contexts (as a function of social approval); on the other hand, expression of HS and enactment of related behaviour would be more likely to occur in private than public contexts (as a function of social disapproval) (Chisango et. al., 2015).”

This is where we can see the exact thing that is happening to Barbra Streisand when she is snuffed of her awards. Because the idea that women should not be directors is consistent with the attitudes of hostile sexism, we see that the actual disapproval is hidden under the covers of “The Academy,” where people remain relatively anonymous in an attempt to avoid public disapproval of their sexist view. However, when Streisand exposes the situation in the light to the light of the media, the social disapproval of a hostile sexist attitude comes in the outcry of the public for justice, and a change of values on the part of The Academy.

– Matt B.

Prejudice and Discrimination on the Court

Nowadays, people usually think that we are a pretty equal and “fair” society…but is that really the case? In the sports world, we tend to think that society is equal and diverse; including all genders, races, and ethnicities. Sports are often used as recreational enjoyment to bring people of all kinds together. Surprisingly, this is not always the case, especially for a Pennsylvania high school basketball team.

A high school basketball game took a turn for the worst in Connellsville, Pennsylvania when students started yelling racist chants at the visiting Uniontown players. Students began participating in chants like “Build that wall!” and “Get them out of here!” – While some held Trump campaign signs – at Black players while the game was going on. These students faced what is known as discrimination based on something we refer to as prejudice.

Discrimination is the inexcusable negative treatment of a group of people or its members. In this case, high school basketball players in Pennsylvania are being discriminated against because of their race. Now, some may wonder how much discrimination effects athletes – or anyone for that matter. Well, studies show that the effects are far from okay.

According to a study – Stress in America – conducted by the American Psychological Association, acts of discrimination lead to higher stress, which, in turn, leads to poorer health. This study was conducted by Harris Poll and utilized a survey poll where approximately 3,300 adults participated online. The results collected from the survey revealed that more than 75% of Black adults described being discriminated against on a daily basis and approximately 40% of Black men say they have been unfairly searched, stopped, and/or questioned by police. This final finding is an example portraying prejudice. Prejudice is a preconceived feeling about an individual or group of individuals based on things such as race, gender, and ethnicity.

It is troubling that in today’s world, people are still facing discrimination and being unfairly treated due to accusations based on race, ethnicity, and gender. Our society in America is assumed to be one reflecting equality and it is unfortunate that this is not entirely the case…something needs to be done.

 

 

Associated Press. (2017). Parents say black players harassed during Pa. high school basketball game. USA Today: High School Sports. http://usatodayhss.com/2017/hick-night-connnellsville-uniontown-black-players-harassed

Bethune, Sophie, and Luana Bossolo. (2016). Discrimination linked to stress, poorer health, American Psychological Association survey finds. American Psychological Association.

http://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2016/03/impact-of-discrimination.aspx

Myers, David G, and Jean M Twenge. Exploring Social Psychology. Print.

Melanin Goddess Spreads Positivity

The modeling industry is no stranger to the idea of discrimination and prejudice. They often discriminate against women of different shapes, heights, and color. Model Khoudia Diop is also no stranger to prejudice herself. Discrimination is the unfair or unjust treatment of people based on different groups such as race, sex, and age (Myers, 2012). While prejudice is, the favorable or unfavorable feeling towards people based off a preconceived opinion (Myers, 2012).

Often referred to as “melanin goddess” Khoudia Diop has been experiencing prejudice from as young as a little girl. Due to her deep rich toned skin, she recalls when children often called her names and poked fun at her. They called her names such as ‘midnight’ or ‘mother of stars’ she said. Khoudia has learned to not listen to the negative comments and embrace not only her inner but outer beauty as well. At first, she would confront the bullies, but as she got older, she learned not to pay mind to the negative comments that others offered her she said. As a woman in the modeling industry Khoudia faces discrimination against not only her race but also her shape, hair type, and height.  Though Khoudia faces so much negativity on a daily basis, she does not let this get her down. Khoudia has transformed her negative experiences into a positive movement by joining with Make Up For Ever and starring in their “Blend In Stand Out” campaign. She uses these experiences to help spread positivity and break the barriers of beauty. Through her positive attitude, Khoudia uses prosocial behavior to help encourage other women around the world. Prosocial behavior is social behavior that is constructive and helpful (Myers, 2012). By starring in the Colored Girl’s latest campaign, “Blend In Stand Out”, Khoudia is helping reconstruct societies idea of what is beautiful. Make Up For Ever is also helping to promote the idea of self- acceptance and embracing cultural diversity by providing makeup shades that most companies most likely do not carry. “Personally, it was always very difficult to find complexion products that match my shade.” “Make Up For Ever has foundation options that work for me, and everyone,” said Khoudia Diop. Through this campaign, she is helping speak out against bullying and is promoting more self-acceptance for women of all shades.

A study conducted at the University of California had men and women of African American, White, and Latino decent complete an anonymous survey on social and political attitudes. The majority of the participants were African American women who made up 55% of the respondents. Women of color often face the double jeopardy hypothesis, which means that as a woman of color she is more likely to face discrimination not only for the color of her skin but also for gender. As opposed to a white woman who belongs to only one of the lower status groups and white males who are a part of two higher status groups.   (Beale, 1970; King, 1975; Klonoff, Landrine, & Scott, 1995; Alcaraz, Scott, & Wilkins, 1995; Ransford, 1980; Reid, 1988; Reid & Comas-Diaz, 1990; Kelly, 1994). The study resulted in women receiving more perceived gender discrimination than men. This was more of a group discrimination, which connected to their ethnicity. The study also showed that African Americans perceived the most ethnic discrimination when compared to that of Latinos and Whites.

Khoudia hopes to continue to influence women all around the world to promote in self-love and acceptance. She also hopes to use her platform to continue in helping others fight against discrimination and bullying.

 

 

 

 

Citations

Myers, David G, and Jean M Twenge. Exploring Social Psychology. Print.

Model Who Was Bullied for Her Dark Skin Stars in Another Make Up For Ever Campaign. (2017, April 27). Retrieved May 01, 2017, from https://www.yahoo.com/beauty/model-bullied-dark-skin-stars-another-make-ever-campaign-200232775.html

Levin, S., Sinclair, S., Veniegas, R. C., & Taylor, P. L. (2002). Perceived discrimination in the context of multiple group memberships. Psychological Science13(6), 557-560. doi:10.1111/1467-9280.00498

 

Jennifer Guzman